domingo, 24 de octubre de 2010

Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов

Scientific dissident of the Soviet Union (Moscow, 1921-1989). Pursued a career in physics, like his father, and it soon showed an exceptional talent: at age 32 was already a full member of the Academy of Sciences, in recognition for his work in developing the theoretical basis of the merger nuclear and construction of the first hydrogen bomb in the USSR (1953). However, exploiting the climate of relative openness encouraged by Khrushchev's de-Stalinization that led from 1961 publicly confronted the arms race and the communist political system.

  For years, criticized the political repression, lack of freedoms and human rights violations while fighting to promote nuclear disarmament and genuine international peaceful coexistence, and expressed his hope that the capitalist and communist systems converge towards a model common democratic socialism (Progress, Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom, 1968). Since 1971 she accompanied him on this work to expose his wife, human rights activist Elena Bonner.

  In 1979 both denounced as an intolerable abuse the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and called on the international community to boycott the Moscow Olympics in protest. In retaliation, Sakharov was stripped of all his honors and confined to the city of Gorky, four years later, Elena Bonner followed the same fate

   However, had already become a symbol of resistance against the Soviet dictatorship, since in 1976 he was awarded the Sakharov the Nobel Peace Prize. The coming to power of Gorbachev allowed them to be released and rehabilitated in 1986. Sakharov was elected and supported the reforms of Gorbachev.

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